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Challenges and possibilities for achieving food security in Russian Federation (2011)

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Dolginova V., Khomyakov D. Challenges and possibilities for achieving food security in russian federation // Sustainable development of Economy. — Croc Ternopol, 2011. — P. 20–20.
CHALLENGES AND POSSIBILITIES FOR ACHIEVING FOOD SECURITY IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Dolginova Vera, PhD, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Khomyakov Dmitriy, Dr. in technics, Professor, Head of the agroinformatics dep. M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

Ensuring the national security is an essential function of the government. Particularly the national food security is a crucial issue. Security Council Meeting on 4 December 2009 declared the requirements of “complex public measures which should seek to provide internal food resources supply instead of exportation”[1]. The approval of the national Doctrine of food security might become a start point of the global structural changes in the system of public regulation based on the strategic public policy and planning in order to improve the quality of life in our country. We assume the crucial importance of the legislative requirements and the quantitative criteria of Food security which have been adopted for the first time in Russia in the Public Doctrine 30 January 2010. From the strategic point of view the Food security is the provision of population with the safety agricultural production and food. The food safeguards imply the stability of the internal production and the availability of the required reserves and stocks. The roadmap proposes the complex monitoring of the socio-economic indicators, the regional program of the infrastructure and logistics development, the improvement of the tax and tariff legislation. The World Food Summit (WFS) goal of halving the number of undernourished people in the world by 2015 is becoming more difficult to reach for many countries. The global economic trends present the increasing of the food consumption in developing countries due to the effect of the global financial crises. Many developing countries have taken unilateral action in efforts to contain the negative effects of high food prices, including the imposition of price controls and export restrictions. Such responses may not be sustainable and would actually contribute to further rises in world price levels and instability. According to the legalized indicators the Food security in Russia could be ensured by the increasing the domestic production percentage up to 95% (grain, potato), 80% (sugar, vegetable oil), 85% (meet), 90% (milk), 80% (fish). The challenge of food security in the XX century requires an integrated and systemic approach. This approach should address sustainable use and management of natural resources through development and adoption of farming technology and management practices. The current food insecurity and poverty affecting a fifth of the world’s population is a sad indictment of the failure to respond adequately in a time of unprecedented scientific and technological progress and economic developments. The need for food for an increasing population is threatening natural resources as people strive to get the most out of land already in production or push into virgin territory for new agricultural land [2].

Average grain yield over the period 1970-2000 was about 13.9 tonn/ha of grain (weight after processing). Standard deviation (the 30-year trend, second-order parabola with a maximum in the period 1985-1990) is equal to 2.3 tons per hectare. The coefficient of variation 0.165 (16.5%). Thus, the most probable value of the crop yield with the maintaining of the main features of agro-ecological and technological indicators is 11.6 - 16.2 kg / ha in the downward trend. The beginning of the new period is the year 2001 when the fundamental redesigning of the agricultural sector was provided. Moreover, it was the time of intensification of a number negative processes. Grain crops decreased by another 5 million hectares and was about 45.0 million hectares. In the period of 2001-2010 the crop yields was about 18,3 kg/ha [3]. This is 4.4 t / ha higher than in the previous 30 years period [4]. The regional agroinformation system was developed to assess the potential yield. Information system consists of a number of spatial datasets such as soil quality, relief, socio-economic indicators, climate data etc. In summary, the following methodological enhancements have been accomplished: selection and dentition of available crop/land utilization types; dentitions to cover irrigated conditions; crop ecological adaptability inventory; soil-specific moisture regimes, frozen soil conditions; climatic resources databases (1970-2011); Russian Soil Map; digital elevation model; crop suitability analysis; crop suitability by grid-cell (enabling calculations of biomass, constraint-free yields, agro-climatically attainable yields, crop water requirements). As a result of the complex analysis we propose a short-term agricultural forecast. We assume the maximum average grain yield on a level of 18.0 kg/ha and the gross grain yield to be less or nearly equal 80 million tonnes per year.

References:
1) Food Security in Russian Federation. – M.: GosDuma, 2011. – pp. 7-11.
2) Global Agro-ecological Assessment for Agriculture in the 21st Century, 2008. – Rome, Italy. – pp. 2-4.
3) Russian statistical indicators: 2010. – M.: RosStat, 2010. – 813 p.
4) The State of the Food Security in the World – Rome, Italy: FAO, 2008. – pp. 9-15.

Ссылка для цитирования: Выделить всё

Dolginova V., Khomyakov D. Challenges and possibilities for achieving food security in russian federation // Sustainable development of Economy. — Croc Ternopol, 2011. — P. 20–20.